What is a torn meniscus?
The ends of the three bones in the knee – the femur, tibia and patella – are covered with cartilage (a smooth material that covers bone ends of a joint to cushion the bone and allow the joint to move easily without pain) that acts as a shock absorber. Between the bones of the knees are two crescent-shaped discs of connective tissue, called menisci, which also act as shock absorbers to cushion the lower part of the leg from the weight of the rest of the body.
Meniscus tears can occur during a rotating movement while bearing weight, such as when twisting the upper leg while the foot stays in one place during sports and other activities. Tears can be minor, with the meniscus staying connected to the knee, or major, with the meniscus barely attached to the knee by a cartilage thread.
What are the symptoms of a torn meniscus?
The following are the most common symptoms of a torn meniscus. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Pain, especially when holding the knee straight
- Knee may click or lock
- Knee may feel weak
The symptoms of a torn meniscus may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
How is torn meniscus diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a torn meniscus may include the following:
A diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones and organs onto film.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of a magnetic field and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body; can often determine damage or disease in a surrounding ligament or muscle.
Computed Tomography Scan (CT or CAT scan)
A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.
A minimally-invasive diagnostic and treatment procedure used for conditions of a joint. This procedure uses a small, lighted optic tube (arthroscope) which is inserted into the joint through a small incision in the joint. Images of the inside of the joint are projected onto a screen and used to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in the joint, to detect bone diseases and tumors and to determine the cause of bone pain and inflammation.
Treatment for a torn meniscus:
Specific treatment for a knee ligament injury will be determined by your physician based on:
- Your age, overall health and medical history
- Extent of the injury
- Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures and therapies
- Expectation for the course of the injury
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Muscle strengthening exercises
- Protective knee brace (for use during exercise)
- Ice pack application (to reduce swelling)